Titanus giganteus and Megasoma actaeon are considered the heaviest beetles (Williams 2001), and a male specimen ofTitanus giganteus having a body length of 167 mm the longest beetle of the world (Williams 2001).
Two other candidates for the longest beetles are Macrodontia cervicornis (169 mm, own observation in collection J.Sticher, Germany) and Dynastes hercules. Large males of the latter may reach a body length of 170 mm, however, there is no confirmed record in the literature.
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Large males of Batocera wallacei are distinguished by with impressively long antennae (max. length incl. antennae 315 mm, Raymond Chin, pers. comm.), and of Euchirus longimanus andAcrocinus longimanus extraordinarily prolonged forelegs.
Most exaggerated morphologies (such as prolonged mandibles, horns, antennae and legs) are found in male beetles, which use these structures in intra-specific fights.
Larger males have larger weapons in respect to their body length and win more often in direct encounters. A smaller male loosing in competition is not able to contribute genetic information to the population’s gene pool, unless it develops a alternative tactic to reproduce. Such tactics may be the reason why we still encounter distinct small male caste in species with prolonged morphological structures.